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The invention of the typewriter in was a particular spur: By this time, such movements as the Rational Dress Society , with which the Morrises and Georgiana Burne-Jones were involved, were beginning to exercise some influence on women's dress, although the pre-Raphaelite look was still considered "advanced" in the late years of the 19th century.
It was widely understood that Tilley sought additional authenticity by wearing male underclothing, although off stage she was much more conventional in both her dress and general outlook.
By the early s, what had been a wartime expedient — the need to economise on material — had become a statement of freedom by young women, manifested by shorter hemlines just above the knee by —6  and boyish hairstyles, accompanied by what Robert Graves and Alan Hodge described as "the new fantastic development of Jazz music".
From then on, sportwear for women, as with day-to-day clothes, became freer,  although, after the Second World War , when the American player Gussie Moran appeared at the Wimbledon championships of in a short skirt that revealed lace-trimmed panties , the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club accused her of bringing "vulgarity and sin into tennis" and shunned the outfit's designer Teddy Tinling for many years. The Penguin Social History of Britain noted that "by the s newspapers were filled with advertisements for 'lingerie' and 'undies' which would have been classed as indecent a generation earlier".
But in the summer you know, we don't According to Gable, "the idea was looking half-naked and scaring the brat into her own bed on the other side of the blanket [hanging from a clothesline to separate twin beds]". However, he "gave the impression that going without was a vital sign of a man's virility"  More generally, the adoption by the American movie industry of the Hays Production Code in the early s had a significant effect on how moral, and especially sexual, issues were depicted on film.
This included a more conservative approach to matters of dress. Whereas the sort of scanty lingerie on show in some earlier productions for example, Joan Blondell and Barbara Stanwyck in Night Nurse ,  had tended to reflect trends that, in the s, defied convention and were regarded many young women as liberating, by the early years of the Depression such displays came to be regarded quite widely as undesirable.
Developments in the late s and 70s, when the strictures of the code were abandoned, followed a similar pattern, although, by then, it was often women themselves who were in the vanguard of resistance to sexualised imagery. Looking back at this period, Graves and Hodge noted the protracted course that "daring female fashions had always taken Among female Bohemians in the early 20th century, the "gypsy look" was a recurring theme, popularised by, among others, Dorothy "Dorelia" McNeill — , muse , lover and second wife of the painter Augustus John — , whose full skirts and bright colours gave rise to the so-called "Dorelia look".
Everett recalled also the Johns' woods "with wild cherry trees in blossom, and By contrast, short bobbed hair was often a Bohemian trait,  having originated in Paris c. This style was plainly discernible on a woodblock self-portrait of by Dora Carrington , who had entered the Slade in ,  and, indeed, the journalist and historian Sir Max Hastings has referred to "poling punts occupied by reclining girls with bobbed hair" as an enduring, if misleading, popular image of the "idyll before the storm" of the First World War.
Scott Fitzgerald 's short story, Bernice Bobs Her Hair , a young woman who wishes to become a "society vamp " regards the adoption of a bob as a necessary prelude,  while Louise Brooks' sexually charged performance as Lulu in G. Pabst 's film, Pandora's Box , left an enduring image of the style, which has been replicated on screen over the years, most vividly by Cyd Charisse in Singin' in the Rain , Isabelle de Funès as Valentina in Baba Yaga  and Melanie Griffith in Something Wild It was associated also with many popular singers and actresses in the s and has frequently been evoked by writers and directors, as well as fashion designers, seeking to recapture the hedonsitic or free spirit of the s.
For example, Kerry Greenwood 's Cocaine Blues and succeeding novels about Phryne Fisher , a glamorous, but unconventional aristocratic investigator in late twenties Melbourne , Australia, conveyed an image — "five feet two [ Around an even shorter style, known as the " Eton crop ", became popular: She was dressed in a fisherman's jersey and knickerbockers". In the same book, Miss Mapp frequently — and topically — addressed Lucia, to her irritation, as "Lulu".
For many years trite assumptions were often made about the sexuality of women with cropped hairstyles; an historian of the s wrote of the Greenham Common "peace camp" in England that it "brought public awareness to feminist separation and even to lesbianism, hitherto seen in the mass media — when acknowledged at all — either in terms of Eton-cropped androgyny or of pornographic fantasy".
One social historian has observed that "the innocuous woollen jersey, now known [in Britain] as the jumper or the pullover, was the first item of clothing to become interchangeable between men and women and, as such, was seen as a dangerous symptom of gender confusion".
After the Second World War Christian Dior 's " New Look ", launched in Paris in , though drawing on styles that had begun to emerge in ,  set the pattern for women's fashion generally until the s. Harking back in some ways to the Belle Epoque of the late 19th and early 20th centuries — and thus not a "new" look as such by early , it was simply known as "The Look" in America  — it was criticised by some as excessively feminine and, with its accompanying corsets and rustle of frilled petticoats , as setting back the "work of emancipation won through participation in two world wars".
American influences had been discouraged during the Nazi occupation of France , but, notably in the form of be-bop and other types of jazz, were strong among intellectual café society in the mid-to-late s. These included Roger Vadim who married and launched the career of actress Brigitte Bardot in the s , novelist Boris Vian since described as "the epitome of Left Bank bohemia, standing at the center of its postwar rehabilitation"  and singer Juliette Gréco.
At the liberation of Paris in , the American journalist Ernie Pyle observed that the women were all "brightly dressed in white or red blouses and colourful peasant skirts, with flowers in their hair and big flashy earrings. When I was a teenager in Paris I only had one dress and one pair of shoes, so the boys in the house started dressing me in their old black coats and trousers.
A fashion was shaped out of misery. When people copied me I found it a little ridiculous, but I didn't mind. It made me smile. Performing in London over fifty years later, Gréco was described as "still ooz[ing] bohemian style". Capturing the spirit of the time, David Profumo has written of how his mother, the actress Valerie Hobson , was entranced by Roger Vadim's flatmate, the director Marc Allégret , while she was filming Blanche Fury in Allégret's apparently bohemian lifestyle appealed sharply to her romantic side For an attractive British woman who felt deprived of attention The previous year a perfume created for Hobson had been marketed as "Great Expectations" to coincide with her role as Estella Havisham in David Lean 's film of that name, based on Charles Dickens ' novel.
In England, this attracted the custom of then- Oxford University undergraduate Margaret Roberts, later British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher , who, a little daringly for the time, also shopped for "push-up" pink brassieres. A Daily Mirror journalist described her "pale, ladylike looks, her well-bred clothes Of course, these people live in a raffish, theatrical, bohemian society where no one really knows anyone and everyone is "darling"".
Post-war Paris was recalled fondly in when France introduced a ban on smoking in public places. The aroma of Gauloises and Gitanes was, for many years, thought to be an inseparable feature of Parisian café society, but the owner of Les Deux Magots , once frequented by Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir , Albert Camus and other writers, observed that "things have changed. The writers of today are not so addicted to cigarettes". The bohemian traits of post-war Paris spread to other urban parts of the French-speaking world, notably to Algiers , where an underground culture of "jazz clubs, girls and drugs" grew up - in the words of punk rock producer Marc Zermati , who was in the city at the height of the Algerian war in the late s, "all very French".
In major industrial and student unrest in Paris and other parts of France came close to ousting the government of President Charles de Gaulle , who, after leading the Free French during the Second World War, had returned to power at the time of the Algerian emergency.
The events of represented a further significant landmark in post-war France,  although their longer term impact was probably more on cultural, social and academic life than on the political system, which, through the constitution of the Fifth Republic , has remained broadly intact. Its students were more modish and "trendy" than those of the Sorbonne in the city's Latin Quarter , being described at the time in terms that typify more generally the styles and attitudes of young people the late s:.
It is the girls that give the show away - culottes , glossy leather, mini-skirts , boots - driving up in Mini-Coopers Rebellious sentiment is more obvious among the boys: The picture in Nanterre in May was lots and lots of painted dollies cohabiting with unkempt revolutionaries.
In the United States adherents of the " beat " counter-culture probably best defined by Jack Kerouac 's novel, On the Road , set in the late s, written in and published in were associated with black polo-neck or turtle neck sweaters, blue denim jeans and sandals.
The influence of this movement could be seen in the persona and songs of Bob Dylan in the early to mids, "road" films like Easy Rider and the punk -oriented "New Wave" of the mids, which, among other things, produced a boho style icon in Deborah Harry of the New York band Blondie , whom photographer David LaChapelle has described as "the definition of cool ".
New York's Greenwich Village , which, since the late 19th century, had attracted many women with feminist or " free love " ideals,  was a particular magnet for bohemians in the early s. Bob Dylan's girl-friend Suze Rotolo , who appeared with him on the cover of his second album The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan , recalled that the Village was "where people like me went — people who didn't belong where they came from.. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band , is said to have caused the guru of psychedelia, Timothy Leary , to remark that "my work is finished".
The documentary film, Festival Murray Lerner , , recorded how the "clean-cut college kids" who attended the Newport Rhode Island Folk Festival in had, by when Bob Dylan caused a sensation at that year's festival by playing an electric guitar , become "considerably scruffier": The London art dealer Jeremy Maas reflected in the mids that.
It was observed by all of us who were involved with these exhibitions [of pre-Raphaelite paintings] that visitors included increasing numbers of the younger generation, who had begun to resemble the figures in the pictures they had come to see.
Jimmy Page of the British band Led Zeppelin , who collected Pre-Raphaelite paintings, observed of Edward Burne-Jones that "the romance of the Arthurian legends [captured in his paintings] and the bohemian life of the artists who were reworking these stories seemed very attuned to our time",  while the author David Waller noted in that Burne-Jones' subjects "have much in common with the sixties rock chicks and their pop-star paladins ".
Although the annual Saturday Book recorded in a view that "London's now nothing but flash coffee bars, with teddies and little bits of girls in jeans",  the "Edwardian" " teddy boy " look of the times did not coincide with Bohemian tastes.
For women, the legacy of the "New Look" was still apparent, although hemlines had generally risen as, as one journalist put it in , "photographs of those first bold bearers of the New Look make them seem strangely lost and bewildered, as though they had mistaken their cue and come on stage fifty years late". However, when the singer Alma Cogan wished to mark her success by buying mink coats for her mother and sister, the actress Sandra Caron, the latter asked for a duffel-coat instead because she wanted to be regarded as a serious actress and "a sort of a beatnik".
In Iris Murdoch 's novel, The Bell , an art student named Dora Greenfield bought "big multi-coloured skirts and jazz records and sandals". However, as Britain emerged from post-war austerity , some Bohemian women found influences from continental Europe, adopting, for example, the " gamine look", with its black jerseys and short, almost boyish hairstyles associated with film actresses Audrey Hepburn Sabrina , , and as a "Gréco beatnik"  in Funny Face , and Jean Seberg Bonjour Tristesse , and A bout de souffle , , as well as the French novelist Françoise Sagan , who, as one critic put it, "was celebrated for the variety of her partners and for driving fast sports cars in bare feet as an example of the free life".
Others favoured the lower-cut, tighter styles of continental stars such as Bardot or Gina Lollobrigida. Valerie Hobson was among those whose wardrobe drew on Italian couture ; in addition to a large collection of stiletto heeled shoes, she possessed a skirt made from python skin.
In , when the Beatles then an obscure Liverpudlian combo with five members, as opposed to their eventual "fab" four were working in Hamburg , West Germany, they were influenced by a Bohemian "art school" set known as Exis for "existentialists". The Exis were roughly equivalent to what in France became known as les beats and included photographer Astrid Kirchherr for whom the " fifth Beatle " Stuart Sutcliffe left the group and artist and musician Klaus Voormann who designed the cover for the Beatles' album Revolver in John Lennon 's wife Cynthia recalled that Kirchherr was fascinated by the Beatles' "teddy-boy style", but that they, in turn, were "bowled over by her hip black clothes, her avant garde way of life, her photography and her sense of style".
Beatlemania did not of itself create the apparent iconoclasm of the s; however, as one writer put it, "just as Noël Coward and Cole Porter reflected the louche, carefree attitude of the [Nineteen] Twenties, so did the Beatles' music capture the rhythm of breaking free experienced by an entire generation of people growing up in the Sixties".
These included the military and Victorian fashions popularised by stars who frequented boutiques such as Granny Takes a Trip , the "fusion of fashion, art and lifestyle" opened by Nigel Waymouth in the King's Road , Chelsea in January ,  and, by , the hippie look largely imported from America although, as noted, London stores such as Biba had, for some time, displayed dresses that drew on Pre-Raphaelite imagery .
The Rolling Stones ' Keith Richards , whose early girl friend, Linda Keith , had, in her late teens, been a bohemian force in West Hampstead , noted on the Stones' return from an American tour in how quickly hippiedom had transformed the London scene.
This fusion of influences was discernible in two black-and-white productions for BBC television in On the face of it, Carroll a pseudonym for Charles Lutwidge Dodgson had been a rather conventional and repressed Oxford University don , but he was a keen and artistic photographer in the early days of that medium taking, among other things, rather bohemian looking pictures of Alice Liddell and other young girls  and he developed an empathy and friendship with several of the Pre-Raphaelites;  the sculptor Thomas Woolner and possibly even Rossetti dissuaded him from illustrating Alice himself,  a task that was undertaken instead by John Tenniel.
The imagery of Alice , both textually and graphically, lent itself well to the psychedelia of the late s. By the late s shops such as Laura Ashley whose first London outlet opened in  were routinely promoting the "peasant look" and selling a range of "uniquely eccentric clothes The magic was being able to step into a 'Laura Ashley' dress and imagine you had found something out of a dressing-up box". However, the much-publicised incidence of " bra burning " in the s tended to be overstated and came to be satirised: It was also seen by many, including Greer herself, as a distraction from the cause of women's "liberation".
I realize Playtex [underwear manufacturer] had supported me better than any man I know. By the mids, the American singer Madonna had turned the bra into a positive, even provocative, fashion statement.
Madonna's flamboyant and gritty style notably seen to bohemian effect alongside Rosanna Arquette in the film, Desperately Seeking Susan was, in turn, a precursor of so-called " girl power " that was associated in the s with various prominent young women such as singers Courtney Love , who played the Glastonbury Festival in a headline-grabbing pink bra,  and the more commercially oriented Spice Girls and offbeat or quirky American television series Xena: Journalist Bob Stanley remarked that "the late s are never entirely out of fashion, they just need a fresh angle to make them de jour ".
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